Methods of Information in Medicine Methods of Information in Medicine mim de-de Sun, 30 Apr 17 11:08:48 +0200 Ahead of print: Data Requirements for the Correct Identification of Medication Errors and Adverse... Background: Adverse drug events (ADE) involving or not involving medication errors (ME) are common, but frequently remain undetected as such. Presently, the majority of available clinical decision support systems (CDSS) relies mostly on coded medication data for the generation of drug alerts. It was the aim of our study to identify the key types of data required for the adequate detection and classification of adverse drug events (ADE) and medication errors (ME) in patients presenting at an emergency department (ED). Methods: As part of a prospective study, ADE and ME were identified in 1510 patients presenting at the ED of an university teaching hospital by an interdisciplinary panel of specialists in emergency medicine, clinical pharmacology and pharmacy. For each ADE and ME the required different clinical data sources (i.e. information items such as acute clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, laboratory values or ECG) for the detection and correct classification were evaluated. Results: Of all 739 ADE identified 387 (52.4%), 298 (40.3%), 54 (7.3%), respectively, required one, two, or three, more information items to be detected and correctly classified. Only 68 (10.2%) of the ME were simple drug-drug interactions that could be identified based on medication data alone while 381 (57.5%), 181 (27.3%) and 33 (5.0%) of the ME required one, two or three additional information items, respectively, for detection and clinical classification. Conclusions: Only 10% of all ME observed in emergency patients could be identified on the basis of medication data alone. Focusing electronic decisions support on more easily available drug data alone may lead to an under-detection of clinically relevant ADE and ME.... B. Plank-Kiegele (1), T. Bürkle (2), F. Müller (1), A. Patapovas (3), A. Sonst (4), B. Pfistermeister (1), H. Dormann (4), R. Maas (1) 27469 2017-04-28 07:49:00 Ahead of print: A Randomized Trial Comparing Classical Participatory Design to VandAID, an... Background: Early involvement of stakeholders in the design of medical software is particularly important due to the need to incorporate complex knowledge and actions associated with clinical work. Standard user-centered design methods include focus groups and participatory design sessions with individual stakeholders, which generally limit user involvement to a small number of individuals due to the significant time investments from designers and end users. Objectives: The goal of this project was to reduce the effort for end users to participate in co-design of a software user interface by developing an interactive web-based crowdsourcing platform. Methods: In a randomized trial, we compared a new web-based crowdsourcing platform to standard participatory design sessions. We developed an interactive, modular platform that allows responsive remote customization and design feedback on a visual user interface based on user preferences. The responsive canvas is a dynamic HTML template that responds in real time to user preference selections. Upon completion, the design team can view the user’s interface creations through an administrator portal and download the structured selections through a REDCap interface. Results: We have created a software platform that allows users to customize a user interface and see the results of that customization in real time, receiving immediate feedback on the impact of their design choices. Neonatal clinicians used the new platform to successfully design and customize a neonatal handoff tool. They received no specific instruction and yet were able to use the software easily and reported high usability. Conclusions: VandAID, a new web-based crowdsourcing platform, can involve multiple users in user-centered design simultaneously and provides means of obtaining design feedback remotely. The software can provide design feedback at any stage in the design process, but it will be of greatest utility for specifying user requirements and evaluating iterative designs with multiple options.... K. R. Dufendach (1), S. Koch (2), K. M. Unertl (3), C. U. Lehmann (3) 27468 2017-04-28 07:48:09 Ahead of print: Reconstruction of 12-lead ECG Using a Single-patch Device Objectives: The aim of this study is to develop an optimal electrode system in the form of a small and wearable single-patch ECG monitoring device that allows for the faithful reconstruction of the standard 12-lead ECG. Methods: The optimized universal electrode positions on the chest and the personalized transformation matrix were determined using linear regression as well as artificial neural networks (ANNs). A total of 24 combinations of 4 neighboring electrodes on 35 channels were evaluated on 19 subjects. Moreover, we analyzed combinations of three electrodes within the four-electrode combination with the best performance. Results: The mean correlation coefficients were all higher than 0.95 in the case of the ANN method for the combinations of four neighboring electrodes. The reconstructions obtained using the three and four sensing electrodes showed no significant differences. The reconstructed 12-lead ECG obtained using the ANN method is better than that using the MLR method. Therefore, three sensing electrodes and one ground electrode (forming a square) placed below the clavicle on the left were determined to be suitable for ensuring good reconstruction performance. Conclusions: Since the interelectrode distance was determined to be 5 cm, the suggested approach can be implemented in a single-patch device, which should allow for the continuous monitoring of the standard 12-lead ECG without requiring limb contact, both in daily life and in clinical practice.... H. J. Lee (1), D. S. Lee (1), H. B. Kwon (1), D. Y. Kim (2), K. S. Park (3) 27467 2017-04-28 07:47:17 Ahead of print: Boosting Quality Registries with Clinical Decision Support Functionality Background: The care of HIV-related tuberculosis (HIV/TB) is complex and challenging. Clinical decision support (CDS) systems can contribute to improve quality of care, but more knowledge is needed on factors determining user acceptance of CDS. Objectives: To analyze physicians’ and nurses’ acceptance of a CDS prototype for evidence-based drug therapy recommendations for HIV/TB treatment. Methods: Physicians and nurses were involved in designing a CDS prototype intended for future integration with the Swedish national HIV quality registry. Focus group evaluation was performed with ten nurses and four physicians, respectively. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was used to analyze acceptance. Results: We identified several potential benefits with the CDS prototype as well as some concerns that could be addressed by redesign. There was also concern about dependence on physician attitudes, as well as technical, organizational, and legal issues. Conclusions: Acceptance evaluation at a prototype stage provided rich data to improve the future design of a CDS prototype. Apart from design and development efforts, substantial organizational efforts are needed to enable the implementation and maintenance of a future CDS system.... C. Wannheden (1), H. Hvitfeldt-Forsberg (1), E. Eftimovska (1), K. Westling (2, 3), J. Ellenius (4) 27466 2017-04-28 07:46:55 Ahead of print: Tool-supported Interactive Correction and Semantic Annotation of Narrative Clinical... Objectives: Our main objective is to design a method of, and supporting software for, interactive correction and semantic annotation of narrative clinical reports, which would allow for their easier and less erroneous processing outside their original context: first, by physicians unfamiliar with the original language (and possibly also the source specialty), and second, by tools requiring structured information, such as decision-support systems. Our additional goal is to gain insights into the process of narrative report creation, including the errors and ambiguities arising therein, and also into the process of report annotation by clinical terms. Finally, we also aim to provide a dataset of ground-truth transformations (specific for Czech as the source language), set up by expert physicians, which can be reused in the future for subsequent analytical studies and for training automated transformation procedures. Methods: A three-phase preprocessing method has been developed to support secondary use of narrative clinical reports in electronic health record. Narrative clinical reports are narrative texts of healthcare documentation often stored in electronic health records. In the first phase a narrative clinical report is tokenized. In the second phase the tokenized clinical report is normalized. The normalized clinical report is easily readable for health professionals with the knowledge of the language used in the narrative clinical report. In the third phase the normalized clinical report is enriched with extracted structured information. The final result of the third phase is a semi-structured normalized clinical report where the extracted clinical terms are matched to codebook terms. Software tools for interactive correction, expansion and semantic annotation of narrative clinical reports has been developed and the three-phase preprocessing method validated in the cardiology area. Results: The three-phase preprocessing method was validated on 49 anonymous Czech narrative clinical reports in the field of cardiology. Descriptive statistics from the database of accomplished transformations has been calculated. Two cardiologists participated in the annotation phase. The first cardiologist annotated 1500 clinical terms found in 49 narrative clinical reports to codebook terms using the classification systems ICD 10, SNOMED CT, LOINC and LEKY. The second cardiologist validated annotations of the first cardiologist. The correct clinical terms and the codebook terms have been stored in a database. Conclusions: We extracted structured information from Czech narrative clinical reports by the proposed three-phase preprocessing method and linked it to electronic health records. The software tool, although generic, is tailored for Czech as the specific language of electronic health record pool under study. This will provide a potential etalon for porting this approach to dozens of other less-spoken languages. Structured information can support medical decision making, quality assurance tasks and further medical research.... K. Zvára (1, 2), M. Tomečková (2), J. Peleška (2), V. Svátek (3), J. Zvárová (1, 2) 27465 2017-04-28 07:45:06 Ahead of print: Mapping Acute Coronary Syndrome Registries to SNOMED CT Background: Malaysia and Sweden have mapped their acute coronary syndrome registries using SNOMED CT. Since similar-purposed patient registries can be expected to collect similar data, these data should be mapped to the same SNOMED CT codes despite the different languages used. Previous studies have however shown variations in mapping between different mappers but the reasons behind these variations and the influence of different mapping approaches are still unknown. Objectives: To analyze similar-purposed registries and their registry-to-SNOMED CT maps, using two national acute coronary syndrome registries as examples, to understand the reasons for mapping similarities and differences as well as their implications. Methods: The Malaysian National Cardiovascular Disease – Acute Coronary Syndrome (NCVD-ACS) registry was compared to the Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA). The structures of NCVD-ACS and RIKS-HIA registry forms and their distributions of headings, variables and values were studied. Data items with equivalent meaning (EDIs) were paired and their mappings were categorized into match, mismatch, and non-comparable mappings. Reasons for match, mismatch and non-comparability of each paired EDI were seen as factors that contributed to the similarities and differences between the maps. Results: The registries and their respective maps share a similar distribution pattern regarding the number of headings, variables and values. The registries shared 101 EDIs, whereof 42 % (42) were mapped to SNOMED CT. 45 % (19) of those SNOMED CT coded EDIs had matching codes. The matching EDIs occurred only in pre-coordinated SNOMED CT expressions. Mismatches occurred due to challenges arising from the mappers themselves, limitations in SNOMED CT, and complexity of the registries. Non-comparable mappings appeared due to the use of other coding systems, unmapped data items, as well as requests for new SNOMED CT concepts. Conclusions: To ensure reproducible and reusable maps, the following three actions are recommended: (i) develop a specific mapping guideline for patient registries; (ii) openly share maps; and (iii) establish collaboration between clinical research societies and the SNOMED CT community.... I. Mohd Sulaiman (1), D. Karlsson (2), S. Koch (3) 27378 2017-03-31 10:39:29 Ahead of print: Evaluation of Adjusted and Unadjusted Indirect Comparison Methods in Benefit... Background: With the Act on the Reform of the Market for Medicinal Products (AMNOG) in Germany, pharmaceutical manufacturers are obliged to submit a dossier demonstrating added benefit of a new drug compared to an appropriate comparator. Underlying evidence was planned for registration purposes and therefore often does not meet the appropriate comparator as defined by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA). For this reason AMNOG allows indirect comparisons to assess the extent of added benefit. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the characteristics and applicability of adjusted indirect comparison described by Bucher and Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison (MAIC) in various situations within the early benefit assessment according to §35a Social Code Book 5. In particular, we consider time-to-event endpoints. Methods: We conduct a simulation study where we consider three different scenarios: I) similar study populations, II) dissimilar study populations without interactions and III) dissimilar study populations with interactions between treatment effect and effect modifiers. We simulate data from a Cox model with Weibull distributed survival times. Desired are unbiased effect estimates. We compare the power and the proportion of type 1 errors of the methods. Results: I) Bucher and MAIC perform equivalently well and yield unbiased effect estimates as well as proportions of type 1 errors below the significance level of 5 %. II) Both Bucher and MAIC yield unbiased effect estimates, but Bucher shows a higher power for detection of true added benefit than MAIC. III) Only MAIC, but not Bucher yields unbiased effect estimates. When using robust variance estimation MAIC yields a proportion of type 1 error close to 5 %. In general, power of all methods for indirect comparisons is low. An increasing loss of power for the indirect comparisons can be observed as the true treatment effects decrease. Conclusion: Due to the great loss of power and the potential bias for indirect comparisons, head-to-head trials using the appropriate comparator as defined by the Federal Joint Committee should be conducted whenever possible. However, indirect comparisons are needed if no such direct evidence is available. To conduct indirect comparisons in case of a present common comparator and similar study populations in the trials to be compared, both Bucher and MAIC can be recommended. In case of using adjusted effect measures (such as Hazard Ratio), the violation of the similarity assumption has no relevant effect on the Bucher approach as long as interactions between treatment effect and effect modifiers are absent. Therefore Bucher can still be considered appropriate in this specific situation. In the authors’ opinion, MAIC can be considered as an option (at least as sensitivity analysis to Bucher) if such interactions are present or cannot be ruled out. Nevertheless, in practice MAIC is potentially biased and should always be considered with utmost care.... S. Kühnast (1, 2), J. Schiffner-Rohe (1), J. Rahnenführer (2), F. Leverkus (1) 27377 2017-03-31 10:38:50 Ahead of print: A Machine Learning-based Method for Question Type Classification in Biomedical... Background and Objective: Biomedical question type classification is one of the important components of an automatic biomedical question answering system. The performance of the latter depends directly on the performance of its biomedical question type classification system, which consists of assigning a category to each question in order to determine the appropriate answer extraction algorithm. This study aims to automatically classify biomedical questions into one of the four categories: (1) yes/no, (2) factoid, (3) list, and (4) summary. Methods: In this paper, we propose a biomedical question type classification method based on machine learning approaches to automatically assign a category to a biomedical question. First, we extract features from biomedical questions using the proposed handcrafted lexico-syntactic patterns. Then, we feed these features for machine-learning algorithms. Finally, the class label is predicted using the trained classifiers. Results: Experimental evaluations performed on large standard annotated datasets of biomedical questions, provided by the BioASQ challenge, demonstrated that our method exhibits significant improved performance when compared to four baseline systems. The proposed method achieves a roughly 10-point increase over the best baseline in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the obtained results show that using handcrafted lexico-syntactic patterns as features’ provider of support vector machine (SVM) lead to the highest accuracy of 89.40 %. Conclusion: The proposed method can automatically classify BioASQ questions into one of the four categories: yes/no, factoid, list, and summary. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that our method produced the best classification performance compared to four baseline systems.... M. Sarrouti (1), S. Ouatik El Alaoui (1) 27376 2017-03-31 10:37:51 Ahead of print: Integration of Hospital Information and Clinical Decision Support Systems to Enable... Background: The efficiency and acceptance of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) can increase if they reuse medical data captured during health care delivery. High heterogeneity of the existing legacy data formats has become the main barrier for the reuse of data. Thus, we need to apply data modeling mechanisms that provide standardization, transformation, accumulation and querying medical data to allow its reuse. Objectives: In this paper, we focus on the interoperability issues of the hospital information systems (HIS) and CDSS data integration. Materials and Methods: Our study is based on the approach proposed by Marcos et al. where archetypes are used as a standardized mechanism for the interaction of a CDSS with an electronic health record (EHR). We build an integration tool to enable CDSSs collect data from various institutions without a need for modifications in the implementation. The approach implies development of a conceptual level as a set of archetypes representing concepts required by a CDSS. Results: Treatment case data from Regional Clinical Hospital in Tomsk, Russia was extracted, transformed and loaded to the archetype database of a clinical decision support system. Test records’ normalization has been performed by defining transformation and aggregation rules between the EHR data and the archetypes. These mapping rules were used to automatically generate openEHR compliant data. After the transformation, archetype data instances were loaded into the CDSS archetype based data storage. The performance times showed acceptable performance for the extraction stage with a mean of 17.428 s per year (3436 case records). The transformation times were also acceptable with 136.954 s per year (0.039 s per one instance). The accuracy evaluation showed the correctness and applicability of the method for the wide range of HISes. These operations were performed without interrupting the HIS workflow to prevent the HISes from disturbing the service provision to the users. Conclusions: The project results have proven that archetype based technologies are mature enough to be applied in routine operations that require extraction, transformation, loading and querying medical data from heterogeneous EHR systems. Inference models in clinical research and CDSS can benefit from this by defining queries to a valid data set with known structure and constraints. The standard based nature of the archetype approach allows an easy integration of CDSSs with existing EHR systems.... G. Kopanitsa (1, 2) 27375 2017-03-31 10:37:03 Open Access: On Teaching International Courses on Health Information Systems Background: Health information systems (HIS) are one of the most important areas for biomedical and health informatics. In order to professionally deal with HIS well-educated informaticians are needed. Because of these reasons, in 2001 an international course has been established: The Frank – van Swieten Lectures on Strategic Information Management of Health Information Systems. Objectives: Reporting about the Frank – van Swieten Lectures and about our students‘ feedback on this course during the last 16 years. Summarizing our lessons learned and making recommendations for such international courses on HIS. Methods: The basic concept of the Frank – van Swieten lectures is to teach the theoretical background in local lectures, to organize practical exercises on modelling sub-information systems of the respective local HIS and finally to conduct Joint Three Days as an international meeting were the resulting models are introduced and compared. Results: During the last 16 years, the Universities of Amsterdam, Braunschweig, Heidelberg/Heilbronn, Leipzig as well as UMIT were involved in running this course. Overall, 517 students from these universities participated. Our students‘ feedback was clearly positive. The Joint Three Days of the Frank – van Swieten Lectures, where at the end of the course all students can meet, turned out to be an important component of this course. Based on the last 16 years, we recommend common teaching materials, agreement on equivalent clinical areas for the exercises, support of group building of international student groups, motivation of using a collaboration platform, ensuring quality management of the course, addressing different levels of knowledge of the students, and ensuring sufficient funding for joint activities. Conclusions: Although associated with considerable additional efforts, we can clearly recommend establishing such international courses on HIS, such as the Frank – van Swieten Lectures.... E. Ammenwerth (1), P. Knaup (2), A. Winter (3), A. W. Bauer (4), O. J. Bott (5, 6), M. Gietzelt (2), B. Haarbrandt (5), W. O. Hackl (1), N. Hellrung (5, 7), G. Hübner-Bloder (1), F. Jahn (3), M. W. Jaspers (8), U. Kutscha (9), C. Machan (1), B. Oppermann (5), J. Pilz (9), J. Schwartze (5), C. Seidel (10), J.-E. Slot (11, 12), S. Smers (13), K. Spitalewsky (2, 14), N. Steckel (5, 15), A. Strübing (3), M. van der Haak (2, 16), R. Haux (5), W. J. ter Burg (8) 27297 2017-03-08 15:04:46 Open Access: The Impact of Information Culture on Patient Safety Outcomes Background: An organization’s information culture and information management practices create conditions for processing patient information in hospitals. Information management incidents are failures that could lead to adverse events for the patient if they are not detected. Objectives: To test a theoretical model that links information culture in acute care hospitals to information management incidents and patient safety outcomes. Methods: Reason’s model for the stages of development of organizational accidents was applied. Study data were collected from a cross-sectional survey of 909 RNs who work in medical or surgical units at 32 acute care hospitals in Finland. Structural equation modeling was used to assess how well the hypothesized model fit the study data. Results: Fit indices indicated a good fit for the model. In total, 18 of the 32 paths tested were statistically significant. Documentation errors had the strongest total effect on patient safety outcomes. Organizational guidance positively affected information availability and utilization of electronic patient records, whereas the latter had the strongest total effect on the reduction of information delays. Conclusions: Patient safety outcomes are associated with information management incidents and information culture. Further, the dimensions of the information culture create work conditions that generate errors in hospitals.... V. Jylhä (1), S. Mikkonen (2), K. Saranto (1), D. W. Bates (3, 4) 27296 2017-03-08 15:01:25 Technologies Solutions Schemes for Patients’ Rehabilitation Objective: The present editorial is part of the focus theme of Methods of Information in Medicine entitled “Technologies solutions schemes for Patients’ Rehabilitation: Methodologies, Models and Algorithms”. The focus theme aims to present nowadays most innovative solutions to improve patients’ rehabilitation by applying and using sophisticated and pioneering Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and human factors. Methods: The focus theme explores the different existent research works and tools used, applied and developed for incapable people in terms of rehabilitation and health care, as to look into the extent methodologies, models and algorithms by means of ICT in this process. Results: The focus theme lists a group of research works, which are presenting various solutions using ICT systems to improve the rehabilitation process of people with physical incapacities and to help them in carrying out their daily life. H. M. Fardoun (1), A. S. Mashat (2) 27263 2017-02-28 10:58:35 The MADE Reference Information Model for Interoperable Pervasive Telemedicine Systems Objectives: The main objective is to develop and validate a reference information model (RIM) to support semantic interoperability of pervasive telemedicine systems. The RIM is one component within a larger, computer-interpretable "MADE language" developed by the authors in the context of the MobiGuide project. To validate our RIM, we applied it to a clinical guideline for patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: The RIM is derived from a generic data flow model of disease management which comprises a network of four types of concurrent processes: Monitoring (M), Analysis (A), Decision (D) and Effectuation (E). This resulting MADE RIM, which was specified using the formal Vienna Development Method (VDM), includes six main, high-level data types representing measurements, observations, abstractions, action plans, action instructions and control instructions. Results: The authors applied the MADE RIM to the complete GDM guideline and derived from it a domain information model (DIM) comprising 61 archetypes, specifically 1 measurement, 8 observation, 10 abstraction, 18 action plan, 3 action instruction and 21 control instruction archetypes. It was observed that there are six generic patterns for transforming different guideline elements into MADE archetypes, although a direct mapping does not exist in some cases. Most notable examples are notifications to the patient and/or clinician as well as decision conditions which pertain to specific stages in the therapy. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that the MADE RIM is suitable for modelling clinical data in the design of pervasive telemedicine systems. Together with the other components of the MADE language, the MADE RIM supports development of pervasive telemedicine systems that are interoperable and independent of particular clinical applications.... N. L. S. Fung (1), V. M. Jones (1), H. J. Hermens (1, 2) 27262 2017-02-28 10:57:18 Ahead of print: Relating Complexity and Error Rates of Ontology Concepts Objectives: Ontologies are knowledge structures that lend support to many health-information systems. A study is carried out to assess the quality of ontological concepts based on a measure of their complexity. The results show a relation between complexity of concepts and error rates of concepts. Methods: A measure of lateral complexity defined as the number of exhibited role types is used to distinguish between more complex and simpler concepts. Using a framework called an area taxonomy, a kind of abstraction network that summarizes the structural organization of an ontology, concepts are divided into two groups along these lines. Various concepts from each group are then subjected to a two-phase QA analysis to uncover and verify errors and inconsistencies in their modeling. A hierarchy of the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt) is used as our test-bed. A hypothesis pertaining to the expected error rates of the complex and simple concepts is tested. Results: Our study was done on the NCIt’s Biological Process hierarchy. Various errors, including missing roles, incorrect role targets, and incorrectly assigned roles, were discovered and verified in the two phases of our QA analysis. The overall findings confirmed our hypothesis by showing a statistically significant difference between the amounts of errors exhibited by more laterally complex concepts vis-à-vis simpler concepts. Conclusions: QA is an essential part of any ontology’s maintenance regimen. In this paper, we reported on the results of a QA study targeting two groups of ontology concepts distinguished by their level of complexity, defined in terms of the number of exhibited role types. The study was carried out on a major component of an important ontology, the NCIt. The findings suggest that more complex concepts tend to have a higher error rate than simpler concepts. These findings can be utilized to guide ongoing efforts in ontology QA.... H. Min (1), L. Zheng (2), Y. Perl (2), M. Halper (3), S. De Coronado (4), C. Ochs (2) 27261 2017-02-28 10:55:48 Ahead of print: Structuring Legacy Pathology Reports by openEHR Archetypes to Enable Semantic... Background: Clinical information is often stored as free text, e.g. in discharge summaries or pathology reports. These documents are semi-structured using section headers, numbered lists, items and classification strings. However, it is still challenging to retrieve relevant documents since keyword searches applied on complete unstructured documents result in many false positive retrieval results. Objectives: We are concentrating on the processing of pathology reports as an example for unstructured clinical documents. The objective is to transform reports semi-automatically into an information structure that enables an improved access and retrieval of relevant data. The data is expected to be stored in a standardized, structured way to make it accessible for queries that are applied to specific sections of a document (section-sensitive queries) and for information reuse. Methods: Our processing pipeline comprises information modelling, section boundary detection and section-sensitive queries. For enabling a focused search in unstructured data, documents are automatically structured and transformed into a patient information model specified through openEHR archetypes. The resulting XML-based pathology electronic health records (PEHRs) are queried by XQuery and visualized by XSLT in HTML. Results: Pathology reports (PRs) can be reliably structured into sections by a keyword-based approach. The information modelling using openEHR allows saving time in the modelling process since many archetypes can be reused. The resulting standardized, structured PEHRs allow accessing relevant data by retrieving data matching user queries. Conclusions: Mapping unstructured reports into a standardized information model is a practical solution for a better access to data. Archetype-based XML enables section-sensitive retrieval and visualisation by well-established XML techniques. Focussing the retrieval to particular sections has the potential of saving retrieval time and improving the accuracy of the retrieval.... S. Kropf (1, 2), P. Krücken (3), W. Mueller (4), K. Denecke (5) 27260 2017-02-28 10:54:10 Ahead of print: Assessing the Coverage of E-Health Services in Sub-Saharan Africa Background: E-Health has attracted growing interests globally. The relative lack of facilities, skills, funds and information on existing e-Health initiatives has affected progress on e-Health in Africa. Objectives: To review publicly available literature on e-Health in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) towards providing information on existing and ongoing e-Health initiatives in the region. Methods: Searches of relevant literature were conducted on Medline, EMBASE and Global Health, with search dates set from 1990 to 2016. We included studies on e-Health initiatives (prototypes, designs, or completed projects) targeting population groups in sSA. Results: Our search returned 2322 hits, with 26 studies retained. Included studies were conducted in 14 countries across the four sub-regions in sSA (Central, East, South and West) and spreading over a 12-year period, 2002–2014. Six types of e-Health interventions were reported, with 17 studies (65 %) based on telemedicine, followed by mHealth with 5 studies (19 %). Other e-Health types include expert system, electronic medical records, e-mails, and online health module. Specific medical specialties covered include dermatology (19 %), pathology (12 %) and radiology (8 %). Successes were ‘widely reported’ (representing 50 % overall acceptance or positive feedbacks in a study) in 10 studies (38 %). The prominent challenges reported were technical problems, poor internet and connectivity, participants’ selection biases, contextual issues, and lack of funds. Conclusion: E-Health is evolving in sSA, but with poorly published evidence. While we call for more quality research in the region, it is also important that population-wide policies and on-going e-Health initiatives are contextually feasible, acceptable, and sustainable.... D. Adeloye (1, 2), T. Adigun (3), S. Misra (3, 4), N. Omoregbe (3) 27259 2017-02-28 10:52:13 The Effect of Balance Training on Postural Control in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Using a... Objectives: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor clinical alterations among others. Postural problems have serious consequences for patients, not only limiting their daily life but also increasing some risks, like the risk of fall. Inadequate postural control and postural instability is a major problem in PD patients. A Virtual Motor Rehabilitation System (VMR) has been tested in patients with PD in the intervention period. Our purpose was to analyze the evolution of the spatial postural control during the intervention period, to see if there are any changes caused precisely by this intervention. Methods: Ten people with PD carried out 15 virtual rehabilitation sessions. We tested a groundbreaking system based on Virtual Motor Rehabilitation in two periods of time (baseline evaluation and final evaluation). In the training sessions, the participants performed a customizable treatment using a low-cost system, the Active Balance Rehabilitation system (ABAR). We stored the pressure performed by the participants every five hundredths of a second, and we analyzed the patients’ pressure when they maintained their body on the left, on the right, and in the center in sitting position. Our system was able to measure postural control in every patient in each of the virtual rehabilitation sessions. Results: There are no significant differences in the performance of postural control in any of the positions evaluated throughout the sessions. Moreover, the results show a trend to an improvement in all positions. This improvement is especially remarkable in the left/right positions, which are the most important positions in order to avoid problems such as the risk of fall. With regard to the suitability of the ABAR system, we have found outstanding results in enjoyment, success, clarity, and helpfulness. Conclusions: Although PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, the results demonstrate that patients with PD maintain or even improve their postural control in all positions. We think that the main factor influencing these results is that patients use more of their available cognitive processing to improve their postural control. The ABAR system allows us to make this assumption because the system requires the continuous attention of patients, promoting cognitive processing.... S. Albiol-Pérez (1), J.-A. Gil-Gómez (2), M.-T. Muñoz-Tomás (1, 3), H. Gil-Gómez (2), R. Vial-Escolano (1, 3), J.-A. Lozano-Quilis (2) 27258 2017-02-28 10:45:03 Ahead of print: Increasing the Efficiency on Producing Radiology Reports for Breast Cancer Diagnosis... Background: Radiology reports are commonly written on free-text using voice recognition devices. Structured reports (SR) have a high potential but they are usually considered more difficult to fill-in so their adoption in clinical practice leads to a lower efficiency. However, some studies have demonstrated that in some cases, producing SRs may require shorter time than plain-text ones. This work focuses on the definition and demonstration of a methodology to evaluate the productivity of software tools for producing radiology reports. A set of SRs for breast cancer diagnosis based on BI-RADS have been developed using this method. An analysis of their efficiency with respect to free-text reports has been performed. Material and Methods: The methodology proposed compares the Elapsed Time (ET) on a set of radiological reports. Free-text reports are produced with the speech recognition devices used in the clinical practice. Structured reports are generated using a web application generated with TRENCADIS framework. A team of six radiologists with three different levels of experience in the breast cancer diagnosis was recruited. These radiologists performed the evaluation, each one introducing 50 reports for mammography, 50 for ultrasound scan and 50 for MRI using both approaches. Also, the Relative Efficiency (REF) was computed for each report, dividing the ET of both methods. We applied the T-Student (T-S) test to compare the ETs and the ANOVA test to compare the REFs. Both tests were computed using the SPSS software. Results: The study produced three DICOM-SR templates for Breast Cancer Diagnosis on mammography, ultrasound and MRI, using RADLEX terms based on BIRADs 5th edition. The T-S test on radiologists with high or intermediate profile, showed that the difference between the ET was only statistically significant for mammography and ultrasound. The ANOVA test performed grouping the REF by modalities, indicated that there were no significant differences between mammograms and ultrasound scans, but both have significant statistical differences with MRI. The ANOVA test of the REF for each modality, indicated that there were only significant differences in Mammography (ANOVA p = 0.024) and Ultrasound (ANOVA p = 0.008). The ANOVA test for each radiologist profile, indicated that there were significant differences on the high profile (ANOVA p = 0.028) and medium (ANOVA p = 0.045). Conclusions: In this work, we have defined and demonstrated a methodology to evaluate the productivity of software tools for producing radiology reports in Breast Cancer. We have evaluated that adopting Structured Reporting in mammography and ultrasound studies in breast cancer diagnosis improves the performance in producing reports.... J. D. Segrelles (1), R. Medina (2), I. Blanquer (1, 3), L. Martí-Bonmatí (3, 4) 27208 2017-02-21 13:45:09 Evaluation Results of an Ontology-based Design Model of Virtual Environments for Upper Limb Motor... Objectives: 1) To enhance the content of an ontology for designing virtual environments (VEs) for upper limb motor rehabilitation of stroke patients according to the suggestions and comments of rehabilitation specialists and software developers, 2) to characterize the perceived importance level of the ontology, 3) to determine the perceived usefulness of the ontology, and 4) to identify the safety characteristics of the ontology for VEs design according to the rehabilitation specialists. Methods: Using two semi-structured Web questionnaires, we asked six rehabilitation specialists and six software developers to provide us with their perception regarding the level of importance and the usability of the ontology. From their responses we have identified themes related to perceived and required safety characteristics of the ontology. Results: Significant differences in the importance level were obtained for the Stroke Disability, VE Configuration, Outcome Measures, and Safety Calibration classes, which were perceived as highly important by rehabilitation specialists. Regarding usability, the ontology was perceived by both groups with high usefulness, ease of use, learnability and intention of use. Concerning the thematic analysis of recommendations, eight topics for safety characteristics of the ontology were identified: adjustment of therapy strategies; selection and delimitation of movements; selection and proper calibration of the interaction device; proper selection of measuring instruments; gradual modification of the difficulty of the exercise; adaptability and variability of therapy exercises; feedback according to the capabilities of the patient; and real-time support for exercise training. Conclusions: The rehabilitation specialists and software developers confirmed the importance of the information contained in the ontology regarding motor rehabilitation of the upper limb. Their recommendations highlight the safety features and the advantages of the ontology as a guide for the effective design of VEs.... C. Ramírez-Fernández (1, 2), A. L. Morán (1), E. García-Canseco (1), J. R. Gómez-Montalvo (3) 27207 2017-02-21 13:44:02 Ahead of print: Genetic Testing for Autism Spectrum Disorder is Lacking Evidence of... Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neural development disorder characterized by social impairment. The earlier the diagnosis is made, the higher are the chances of obtaining relief of symptoms. A very early diagnosis uses molecular genetic tests, which are also offered commercially. Objective: Systematic review of the economic impact of genetic tests in ASD. Methods: We performed a systematic search of databases Pubmed, Medline, Cochrane, Econlit and the NHS Center for Reviews and Dissemination for articles in English and German from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2015. Original articles published in peer-reviewed journals were screened in a two-step process. First, we focused our search on economic evaluations of genetic tests for ASD. Second, we searched for any economic evaluation (EE) of genetic tests. Results: We identified 185 EE of genetic tests for various diseases. However, not a single EE of genetic tests has been found for ASD. The outcomes used in the EE of the genetic tests were heterogeneous, and results were generally not comparable. Conclusion: There is no evidence for cost-effectiveness of any genetic diagnostic test for ASD, although such genetic tests are available commercially. Cost-effectiveness analyses for genetic diagnostic tests for ASD are urgently required. There is a clear lack in research for EE of genetic tests.... A. Ziegler (1, 2, 3), W. Rudolph-Rothfeld (1), R. Vonthein (1, 2) 27206 2017-02-21 13:41:28 MaLT – Combined Motor and Language Therapy Tool for Brain Injury Patients Using Kinect Background: The functional connectivity and structural proximity of elements of the language and motor systems result in frequent co-morbidity post brain injury. Although rehabilitation services are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and “integrated”, treatment for language and motor functions often occurs in isolation. Thus, behavioural therapies which promote neural reorganisation do not reflect the high intersystem connectivity of the neurologically intact brain. As such, there is a pressing need for rehabilitation tools which better reflect and target the impaired cognitive networks. Objectives: The objective of this research is to develop a combined high dosage therapy tool for language and motor rehabilitation. The rehabilitation therapy tool developed, MaLT (Motor and Language Therapy), comprises a suite of computer games targeting both language and motor therapy that use the Kinect sensor as an interaction device. The games developed are intended for use in the home environment over prolonged periods of time. In order to track patients’ engagement with the games and their rehabilitation progress, the game records patient performance data for the therapist to interrogate. Methods: MaLT incorporates Kinect-based games, a database of objects and language parameters, and a reporting tool for therapists. Games have been developed that target four major language therapy tasks involving single word comprehension, initial phoneme identification, rhyme identification and a naming task. These tasks have 8 levels each increasing in difficulty. A database of 750 objects is used to programmatically generate appropriate questions for the game, providing both targeted therapy and unique gameplay every time. The design of the games has been informed by therapists and by discussions with a Public Patient Involvement (PPI) group. Results: Pilot MaLT trials have been conducted with three stroke survivors for the duration of 6 to 8 weeks. Patients’ performance is monitored through MaLT’s reporting facility presented as graphs plotted from patient game data. Performance indicators include reaction time, accuracy, number of incorrect responses and hand use. The resultant games have also been tested by the PPI with a positive response and further suggestions for future modifications made. Conclusion: MaLT provides a tool that innovatively combines motor and language therapy for high dosage rehabilitation in the home. It has demonstrated that motion sensor technology can be successfully combined with a language therapy task to target both upper limb and linguistic impairment in patients following brain injury. The initial studies on stroke survivors have demonstrated that the combined therapy approach is viable and the outputs of this study will inform planned larger scale future trials.... M. Wairagkar (1), R. McCrindle (1), H. Robson (2), L. Meteyard (2), M. Sperrin (3), A. Smith (4), M. Pugh (5) 27205 2017-02-21 13:40:21 Open Access: Discussion of “Representation of People’s Decisions in Health Information Systems: A... This article is part of a For-Discussion-Section of Methods of Information in Medicine about the paper “Representation of People’s Decisions in Health Information Systems: A Complementary Approach for Understanding Health Care Systems and Population Health” written by Fernan Gonzalez Bernaldo de Quiros, Adriana Ruth Dawidowski, and Silvana Figar. It is introduced by an editorial. This article contains the combined commentaries invited to independently comment on the paper of de Quiros, Dawidowski, and Figar. In subsequent issues the discussion can continue through letters to the editor. N. Al-Shorbaji (1), E. M. Borycki (2), M. Kimura (3), C. U. Lehmann (4), N. M. Lorenzi (4), L. A. Moura (5), A. Winter (6) 27118 2017-02-01 09:57:03 Open Access: Representation of People‘s Decisions in Health Information Systems Objectives: In this study, we aimed: 1) to conceptualize the theoretical challenges facing health information systems (HIS) to represent patients' decisions about health and medical treatments in everyday life; 2) to suggest approaches for modeling these processes. Methods: The conceptualization of the theoretical and methodological challenges was discussed in 2015 during a series of interdisciplinary meetings attended by health informatics staff, epidemiologists and health professionals working in quality management and primary and secondary prevention of chronic diseases of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, together with sociologists, anthropologists and e-health stakeholders. Results: HIS are facing the need and challenge to represent social human processes based on constructivist and complexity theories, which are the current frameworks of human sciences for understanding human learning and socio-cultural changes. Computer systems based on these theories can model processes of social construction of concrete and subjective entities and the interrelationships between them. These theories could be implemented, among other ways, through the mapping of health assets, analysis of social impact through community trials and modeling of complexity with system simulation tools. Conclusions: This analysis suggested the need to complement the traditional linear causal explanations of disease onset (and treatments) that are the bases for models of analysis of HIS with constructivist and complexity frameworks. Both may enlighten the complex interrelationships among patients, health services and the health system. The aim of this strategy is to clarify people's decision making processes to improve the efficiency, quality and equity of the health services and the health system.... F. Gonzalez Bernaldo de Quiros (1), A. R. Dawidowski (2), S. Figar (2) 27117 2017-02-01 09:52:15 Open Access: Health Information Systems Supporting Health and Resiliency Through Improved... D. Ring (1), W. M. Tierney (2) 27116 2017-02-01 09:45:27 Open Access: Research Strategies for Biomedical and Health Informatics Background: Medical informatics, or biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), has become an established scientific discipline. In all such disciplines there is a certain inertia to persist in focusing on well-established research areas and to hold on to well-known research methodologies rather than adopting new ones, which may be more appropriate. Objectives: To search for answers to the following questions: What are research fields in informatics, which are not being currently adequately addressed, and which methodological approaches might be insufficiently used? Do we know about reasons? What could be consequences of change for research and for education? Methods: Outstanding informatics scientists were invited to three panel sessions on this topic in leading international conferences (MIE 2015, Medinfo 2015, HEC 2016) in order to get their answers to these questions. Results: A variety of themes emerged in the set of answers provided by the panellists. Some panellists took the theoretical foundations of the field for granted, while several questioned whether the field was actually grounded in a strong theoretical foundation. Panellists proposed a range of suggestions for new or improved approaches, methodologies, and techniques to enhance the BMHI research agenda. Conclusions: The field of BMHI is on the one hand maturing as an academic community and intellectual endeavour. On the other hand vendor-supplied solutions may be too readily and uncritically accepted in health care practice. There is a high chance that BMHI will continue to flourish as an important discipline; its innovative interventions might then reach the original objectives of advancing science and improving health care outcomes.... R. Haux (1), C. A. Kulikowski (2), S. Bakken (3), S. de Lusignan (4), M. Kimura (5), S. Koch (6), J. Mantas (7), V. Maojo (8), M. Marschollek (1), F. Martin-Sanchez (9), A. Moen (10, 11), H.-A. Park (12), I. N. Sarkar (13), T. Y. Leong (14, 15), A. T. McCray (16) 27091 2017-01-25 08:52:27